“Hard power, structural power, soft power e quant’altro”
Un articolo di Paolo Rosa dal titolo "Hard power, structural power, soft power e quant’altro” è stato pubblicato su Sulla via del Catai, vol 18. (ISSN:1970-3449)
L'articolo analizza il problema dell'analisi e misurazione del potere, con particolare riferimento al caso cinese.
The analysis of power is a core issue in Political Science and in the theory of International Relations. At the same time, measuring the power of nations and understanding who influences whom is not an easy task. The shortcut usually used by scholars is to equate power with national resources – in terms of economic means, men, armaments – and proceed, on this basis, to cross-national comparison. Unfortunately, as many studies demonstrate, countries are not always able to translate their power resources into instruments of influence. Measurement problems are even more complex in analysing the soft power, which is not easily convertible into empirical items, such as GDP, military expenditures, or number of nuclear warheads.
"From the Porcellum to the Rosatellum: ‘political elite-judicial interaction’ in the Italian laboratory of electoral reforms"
Emanuele Massetti and Arianna Farinelli have a new article eintitled "From the Porcellum to the Rosatellum: ‘political elite-judicial interaction’ in the Italian laboratory of electoral reforms" published in Contemporary Italian Politics, 11(2): 137-157.
The period from 2013 to 2018 saw Parliament experiment with a number of different electoral systems, with several potential reforms being formally discussed and two of them being fully approved: the so-called Italicum in 2015 and the Rosatellum in 2017. These reforms were triggered by interventions of the Constitutional Court that have no precedent in established democracies. As these interventions resulted in (constrained) responses by the political elites, we argue that Italy has entered a cycle characterised by a new mode of electoral reform involving the interaction of political elites and judges. The article examines the processes that led to the adoption of the Italicum and the Rosatellum, analysing the interaction amongst the actors involved in a rather fluid political context, where the government/opposition divide was fuzzy, shifting and opaque. The article also highlights how the inadequacy both of the reasons given for these reforms, and of their content and the processes by which they were arrived at, prevented them from fully repairing the damage inflicted on electoral integrity by the pre-existing 2005 electoral law (the Porcellum), and concludes that the issue of the electoral system in Italy is far from being settled. However, we remain agnostic on whether the new political elite that emerged after the 2018 election will regain control of the process or whether the interaction between political elites and judges will continue with further judicial interventions.
"Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity"
Routledge has published the book entitled "Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity", co-authored by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. Cossarini, P. & Vallespín, F. (eds) (2019) Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity. London/New York: Routledge.
There is a consensus that right, and left-wing populism is on the rise on both sides of the Atlantic, from Donald Trump in the United States, to Spain’s leftist Podemos. These may utilize different kinds of populist mobilizations but the fact remains that elite and mass opinion is fuelling a populist backlash.
In Populism and Passions, twelve scholars engage with discourse analysis, democratic theory, and post structural political thought to study the political logic of passion for contemporary populism. Together these interdisciplinary essays demonstrate what emotional engagement implies for the spheres of politics and the social, and how it governs and mobilizes individuals.
"La povertà nonostante il lavoro"
The new Issue in Lavoro e diritto "La povertà nonostante il lavoro", co-authored by Matteo Borzaga, Claudia Faleri, Maria Luisa Vallauri. is forthcoming. Matteo Borzaga's paper is on "The policies of the International Labour Organisation and the European Union on the fight against poverty". Lavoro e diritto, Il Mulino, n. 1/2019, inverno.
The essay focuses on the policies against poverty (with particular regard to in-work poverty) of the International Labour Organisation and the European Union. It offers a critical analysis of such policies, which have been reinforced in the last decades but at the same time present serious implementation difficulties, since they have been mainly enclosed into soft law (i.e. non-legally binding) measures.
"What we talk about when we talk about 'local' participation in International Biodiversity Law"
Louisa R. Parks and Mika Schroeder have a new article and an editorial published in the special issue Tenth anniversary edition of Participation and Conflict. The article is entitled "The changing scope of Indigenous peoples and local communities’ participation under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Participation and Conflict", Parks, L. and Schroeder, M. (2018) Participation and Conflict 11(3), 743-785.
"Markups and Markdowns"
"Shock transmission in the International Food Trade Network"
A new paper entitled "Shock transmission in the International Food Trade Network", co-authored by T. Distefano, F. Laio, L. Ridolfi, S.Schiavo, has been published in PLoS ONE 13(8): e0200639. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200639.
Food Security is a long-standing concern worldwide. The expansion of global food markets brings benefits but also risks, such as shock transmission within the global network of trade relations. We focus on this last issue, from an empirical point of view, by analysing the diffusion of trade shocks—defined as relevant drops in exported quantities—during the period 1986—2011, for four major staples (wheat, maize, rice, and soy-beans) both at country level and at global scale. We find that: (i) income per capita of importing countries is relevant in shock propagation; (ii) developing countries tend to absorb most of the negative export variation (i.e., the trade shock), and (iii) global food prices and real (tonnes) flows of commodities are only weakly correlated, meaning that a quantity-based investigation provides additional information with respect to a price-based analysis. This work offers a novel framework, complementary to the price-based literature, for the measurement of the propagation of international food shocks.
"The EU Dimension of EU Investment Law and Policy"
A paper by Sondra Faccio, entitled "The EU Dimension of EU Investment Law and Policy" has been published in Ferri, D., Cortese, F. (Eds.) (2018) The EU Social Market Economy and the Law. Theoretical Perspectives and Practical Challenges for the EU, London-New York: Routledge, pp. 293 ss.
This chapter aims to analyse the EU investment policy, as shaped by the European Commission after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and EU IIAs and investment chapters of trade agreements, to discuss whether and to what extent they include social considerations and they embed the EU value of the social market economy. Socially oriented provisions within EU IIAs and investment chapters of trade agreements will be taken into consideration both from the point of view of their content and of their enforcement in investor-State disputes. The chapter is divided into five sections. After a brief introduction (Section 1), Section 2 examines the EU competence on foreign direct investment, beyond the so-called common commercial policy (CCP); Section 3 analyses EU IIAs and investment chapters of EU trade agreements in details to verify whether and how they take into consideration social issues; Section 4 verifies how social provisions included in EU IIAs and in investment chapters of trade agreements can effectively be implemented in investor-State relations and, more generally, whether and to what extent investment arbitrators are dealing with social issues in settling investor- State disputes based on IIAs; Section 5 concludes with brief remarks on EU IIAs provisions on expropriation, arguing that the latter reflect current balance existing between the ‘market’ and the ‘social’ within the EU Common International Investment Policy.
"Informal economy and extractive institutions"
A new paper, entitled "Informal economy and extractive institutions, co-authored by Coletto D., Fracasso A. and G. Vittucci Marzetti, has been published in the Review of Economics and Institutions, 9(1), article 2, 10.5202/rei.v9i1.240 (open access).
The paper aims at assessing the impact of the extractiveness of institutions on the size of the informal economy. After the identification of the variables suitable to proxy the distinct features of institutions, among which their extractiveness, the paper offers a battery of cross-section regressions over two large samples of developed and developing countries. The results suggest that the extractiveness of institutions is a significant determinant of the size of the informal economy and that greater informality is associated with a higher perceived distrust in formal institutions. The results are robust to the inclusion of standard controls, as well as proxies for culture, generalized trust and generalized morality.The paper was prepared for the workshop "Failing institutions" jointly organized on December 4, 2015, by the School of International Studies of the University of Trento and the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the University of Pavia.
“Fighting nuclear proliferation through education. The remarkable story of ISODARCO”
Paolo Foradori and Giampiero Giacomello have a new article published in “Fighting nuclear proliferation through education. The remarkable story of ISODARCO”, published on Modern Italy, 2018, doi:10.1017/mit.2018.17.
Disarmament and non-proliferation education is a key tool in curbing the spread of nuclear weapons, with a view to their elimination. This article examines the remarkable story of the International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts (ISODARCO) on the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary of continuous engagement in educational and training activities. ISODARCO offers a unique forum where nuclear experts from different backgrounds and approaches can meet, debate, and promote action as a transnational knowledge-based network of experts and, equally important, pass on
their expertise to the ‘next generation of non-proliferation specialists’. The contribution of this small Italian NGO is indeed noteworthy, highly praised at the national and especially international level, and worth the attention of an audience broader than justnon-proliferation and security experts.
"Cops in Foreign Lands: Italy’s Role in International Policing"
A new paper by Paolo Foroadori entitled "Cops in Foreign Lands: Italy's Role in International Policing" has been published in International Peacekeeping (DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2018.1476854, Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/finp20/current).
This article analyses the role of Italy in international policing, focusing on the reasons, specific features, multifaceted character and value of its contribution. The argument is made that participation in such operations has become a distinctive character of Italy’s international projection and ideally suits its security culture and foreign policy objectives. Italy’s role is positively appraised because it responds to the international community’s demands for a more robust, specialized and highly trained police force that is needed to meet the complex challenges of the contemporary global security environment.
"Neoclassical Realism and the Underdevelopment of China's Nuclear Doctrine”
Palgrave Macmillan has published a new book by Paolo Rosa entitled "Neoclassical Realism and the Underdevelopment of China's Nuclear Doctrine” (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78640-7).
The book focuses on the impact of domestic politics on the process of formation of China's nuclear doctrine.
The purpose of this study is twofold. First, it aims to explain why China, after having launched a crash programme in the mid-1950s to develop a nuclear deterrent, did not formulate a clear operational doctrine with respect to the targeting and employment of nuclear weapons until the mid-1980s. Second, it aims to contribute to the development of a neoclassical realist approach to the study of international relations by demonstrating its utility in explaining the formation of a state’s military doctrine.
"Reshaping Cultural Heritage Protection Policies at a Time of Securitisation: France, Italy, and the United Kingdom"
A new article, entitled "Reshaping Cultural Heritage Protection Policies at a Time of Securitisation: France, Italy, and the United Kingdom", co-authored by Paolo Foradori, Serena Giusti and Alessandro Giovanni Lamonica, has been published in The
In the context of the increasing securitisation of cultural heritage, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom have reacted differently to the recent wave of iconoclasm perpetrated by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and similar radical groups and terrorist organisations. With cultural heritage now discursively identified as a security concern, the three states enacted security practices to deal with the newly emerged security threats. All three cases show a tight association between the protection of cultural heritage, development and security policies. State-driven cultural heritage protection policies continue to be designed around the notion of multilateral cooperation, although innovative forms of public-private multilateralism and civil-military cooperation are increasingly being introduced.
"Contrasto al lavoro infantile e decent work"
Matteo Borzaga has his new book, entitled "Contrasto al lavoro infantile e decent work", pubidshed by Editoriale Scientifica - Collana della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli Studi di Trento, 2018.
Negli ultimi decenni la questione del contrasto al lavoro infantile ha assunto un’importanza crescente, soprattutto sul versante sovranazionale. L’Organizzazione Internazionale del Lavoro (OIL), del resto, l’ha inclusa tra i core labour standards e ne ha riconfermato la centralità pure nell’ambito delle sue politiche più recenti, legate al c.d. decent work. Anche l’Unione Europea (UE) si è interessata di tale questione, dedicandole alcuni strumenti lato sensu normativi nonché l’art. 32 della Carta dei Diritti Fondamentali.
Prendendo le mosse dalle più risalenti legislazioni nazionali, il presente volume si ripropone anzitutto di analizzare le Convenzioni emanate dall’OIL in materia, mettendo in luce come l’organizzazione si sia dapprima occupata prevalentemente di età minima di accesso al lavoro, per poi concentrarsi sulle peggiori forme di lavoro infantile, anche per tenere conto dei mutamenti innescati dalla globalizzazione e delle esigenze dei Paesi emergenti.
A tale analisi segue quella relativa ai provvedimenti adottati dall’UE che – non solo per ragioni giuridico-culturali, ma anche in virtù di un sistema sanzionatorio assai più efficiente di quello dell’OIL (di cui pure si parla nella parte finale del volume) – rispondono invece a una logica «occidentocentrica», secondo la quale i bambini sarebbero titolari di un vero e proprio right not to work, collegato alla necessità di garantire loro un’istruzione adeguata.
"Resource allocation and productivity across provinces in China"
A new paper, entitled " Resource allocation and productivity across provinces in China", co-authored also by Peng Bin (former post doc) and Andrea Fracasso, will be soon published in International Review of Economics & Finance
Peng Bin, Xiaolan Chen, Andrea Fracasso, Chiara Tomasi, Resource allocation and productivity across provinces in China, International Review of Economics & Finance, Available online 6 March 2018,
The rapid economic development in China has been characterized by levels of productivity very heterogeneous across local areas. This work investigates a previously unexplored aspect of such heterogeneity by assessing the degree of within-industry allocative efficiency across provinces over the period 1998–2007. Using firm-level data on the Chinese manufacturing firms, we measure resource misallocation by computing the within-industry covariance between size and productivity at the provincial level. The results suggest that allocative efficiency varies considerably across areas and that some place-based factors strongly influence the distribution of resources across firms.
"The network of migrants and international trade"
A new Paper, written by R. Metulini, M. Riccaboni, P. Sgrignoli e S. Schiavo, entitled "The network of migrants and international trade", is being published soon in Economia Politica - Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics.
forthcoming, doi: 10.1007/s40888-018-0106-6
This paper investigates the relationship between international trade and migration with the specific aim of estimating direct and indirect effect of the latter on cross-border flows of both homogeneous and differentiated goods. Adopting a spatial econometric approach along with a gravity model set-up, we account for the role of ethnic communities in neighbouring countries on trade, and we propose a new way to define neighbours based on the intensity of links in the migration network. Our approach is particularly well suited to measure the indirect effect stemming from the presence of significant ethnic communities on trade through a “market familiarization” effect. Using data covering all countries between 1970 and 2000, we find a significant indirect effect of migration on trade, that depends on the chosen weight matrix.
"Powerless: gains from trade when firm productivity is not Pareto distributed"
A new paper written by Marco Bee and Stefano Schiavo on the gains from trade is forthcoming in Review of World Economics
Bee and Schiavo (2018) "Powerless: gains from trade when firm productivity is not Pareto distributed", Review of World Economics, 154(1): 15-45;
Most trade models featuring heterogeneous firms assume a Pareto productivity distribution, on the basis that it provides a reasonable representation of the data and because of its analytical tractability. However, recent work shows that the characteristics of the productivity distribution crucially affect the estimated gains from trade. This paper thoroughly compares the gains from trade obtained under three different productivity distributions (Pareto, lognormal, and Weibull) and investigates their policy implications. We find that both the magnitude of the welfare gains and the relative importance of the fixed versus variable trade costs change significantly. Hence, relying blindly on a single distribution is dangerous when performing trade policy analysis.
ip between international trade and migration with the specific aim of estimating direct and indirect effect of the latter on cross-border flows of both homogeneous and differentiated goods. Adopting a spatial econometric approach along with a gravity model set-up, we account for the role of ethnic communities in neighbouring countries on trade, and we propose a new way to define neighbours based on the intensity of links in the migration network. Our approach is particularly well suited to measure the indirect effect stemming from the presence of significant ethnic communities on trade through a “market familiarization” effect. Using data covering all countries between 1970 and 2000, we find a significant indirect effect of migration on trade, that depends on the chosen weight matrix.
"Special issue of Comparative European Politics"
A Special issue of Comparative European Politics (vol. 16, no. 1) edited by David Bailey and Louisa Parks has been published:
Introduction - Contention in the age of austerity in Europe: The emergence of new alternatives? David Bailey and Louisa Parks
Social movements, the European crisis and political opportunities. Donatella della Porta and Louisa Parks.
Social movements in the wake of the financial crisis have shifted from the counter-summits and world social forums of the global justice movement to the camps of the anti-austerity mobilizations, and from a clear focus on building ‘another Europe’ to more domestically embedded issues. Among other reasons, this turn away from the EU can be linked to contracting political opportunities for social justice movements at the European level. This article addresses the closure of opportunities at the EU level for the work of social movement groups campaigning on specific EU policies. We reflect on the complexity of the EU’s political opportunity structure prior to the financial crisis, before examining changes to the EU’s architecture effected through responses to the crises and outlining arguments on how EU-level opportunities around socio-economic issues in particular have shrunk as a result. We then show how the perception of other political opportunities at the EU level is affected by the austerity response by drawing on campaigns that sought to exploit new opportunities included in the Lisbon Treaty and designed to increase citizens’ input. Opportunities introduced by changes made in the Lisbon Treaty are perceived through the prism of contracted opportunities flowing from power shifts caused by the response to the financial crisis.
"Challenging power from the bottom up? Community protocols, benefit-sharing, and the challenge of dominant discourses"
Louisa Parks has published a new article entitled "Challenging power from the bottom up? Community protocols, benefit-sharing, and the challenge of dominant discourses" in the Journal 'Geoforum'.
This article discusses the ways in which community protocols might challenge the dominant discourses that guide environmental law and policy at the local, national and international levels and makes suggestions about the conditions that need to be fulfilled if such a challenge is to be effective. Community protocols have attracted the attention of many scholars as they are recognised in the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Nagoya Protocol. They are argued to hold the potential to achieve fair and equitable benefit-sharing by allowing local community voices to express their customary law, worldviews, and ideas of benefit and development among other things. While much of the existing literature discusses community protocols as legal tools, they are also tools that may challenge the dominant discourses argued to guide environmental law and policy. The article takes up this question on the basis of findings from five original case studies. It is argued that community protocols may challenge dominant discourses by: facilitating and articulating the recognition of local communities and indigenous peoples; providing a source for understanding their worldviews; and by empowering them in the long term. In order to achieve these outcomes, community protocol must be understood as processes and pay attention to legal and political contexts, how communities organise, the role of supporting actors, and the articulation of benefits.
Temporary free access through this link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1W8xg3pILIFV6
“Arms Control and Disarmament. 50 Years of Experience in Nuclear Education”
A new book, edited by Paolo Foradori, Giampiero Giacomello and Alessandro Pascolini, has been published by Palgrave MacMillan on “Arms Control and Disarmament. 50 Years of Experience in Nuclear Education” (link: https://www.palgrave.com/de/book/9783319622583)
This volume is a collection of contributions by world-leading experts in the nuclear field who participated in the educational activities of the International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts (ISODARCO). It features some of most prominent scholars and practitioners who contributed in fundamental ways to shaping policies, strategies, theories, scholarly studies, and debates in the field of non-proliferation and disarmament. On the occasion of ISODARCO's 50th anniversary this book revisits a selection of contributions that capture the pressing issues during the five decades of continuous engagement in disarmament and non-proliferation education.
Among others, contributors include two Nobel laureates (Thomas Schelling and Joseph Rotblat); one of the founding fathers of the academic discipline of International Relations (Hans Morgenthau); a world pioneer and leading figure in systems analysis, game theory and conflict resolution (Anatol Rapoport); outstanding scientists who directly participated in the development of nuclear weapons and later in efforts to control them (Joseph Rotblat, Herbert York, Richard Garwin, Bernard Feld); diplomats/policy-makers who were key in creating the current international non-proliferation regime (George Bunn) and prominent scholars who authored some of the classic works on arms control and non-proliferation issues.
"The Italian Social Security System after the Recent Economic and Financial Crisis and the Related Reforms: Are Austerity Measuresthe Right Answer?"
Matteo Borzaga has a new article entitled "The Italian Social Security System after the Recent Economic and Financial Crisis and the Related Reforms: Are Austerity Measuresthe Right Answer?" published in Journal of Social Security Law (2017) 24 J.S.S.L., Issue 2
In this article, the author examines the constitutional principles applicable to the Italian social security system and assesses the implications of recent benefit reforms, including those governing pensions, which have occurred against a back-cloth of financial constraints and austerity.
"Multi-product exporters, variable markups and exchange rate fluctuations"
Mauro Caselli (joint with Arpita Chatterjee and Alan Woodland) has a new paper entitled "Multi-product exporters, variable markups and exchange rate fluctuations" published in the Canadian Journal of Economics (2017) 50(4), 1130-1160.
In this paper we investigate how firms adjust markups across products in response to fluctuations in the real exchange rate. We estimate markups at the market-product-plant level using detailed panel production and cost data from Mexican manufacturing between 1994 and 2007. Exploiting variation in the real exchange rate in the aftermath of the peso crisis in December 1994, we provide robust empirical evidence that plants increase their markups and producer prices in response to a real depreciation and that this increase is greater for products with higher productivity. Thus, we provide direct evidence for the theoretical mechanism of variable markup response behind incomplete and heterogeneous exchange rate pass-through on producer prices. Our empirical methodology allows us to decompose the producer price response to exchange rate shocks into a markup and a marginal cost component using our markup estimates. Using these estimates, we establish that marginal cost at the product-plant level increases more in response to real exchange rate depreciation if the plant has higher share of imported inputs.
"Practices in Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning"
This volume, edited by Kate Riley of the School of International Studies UNITN and Mike Ennis of the Language Centre of UNIBZ, published by Cambridge Academic on 1st November, is a collection of papers first presented at a Symposium, organised by the SIS in conjunction with TESOL Italy, The International Centre for Intercultural Exchange (Siena) and the Centro per Studi Interculturali (Verona) in November 2015.
This volume responds to the growing need for intercultural approaches to teaching and learning languages. The central premise is that the aim of intercultural language teaching and learning is to foster effective communication and effective learning in spaces between cultures in order to prepare learners for global citizenship, but that the corresponding models and methods must emerge from the bottom-up in order to meet the needs of each unique context. The book offers a collection of successful experiences rooted in praxis. It shares the activities, methods, models, and approaches which have been developed within specific contexts. Thus, it offers an example of how to adopt an “intercultural perspective” in teaching and learning. The editors and contributors share the conviction that the experiences detailed here can be informative to the realities of all readers in the same way that their own practices have been informed by others.
"Patterns of Strategic Cultures and the Italian Case”
Paolo Rosa has a new paper entitled "Patterns of Strategic Cultures and the Italian Case” published in the journal International Politics. The article focuses on the peculiarities of post-Cold War Italian strategic culture.
The International Relations literature has not produced a systematic typology of the different models of strategic cultures. This study aims to close this gap and contribute to the development and refinement of the concept of strategic culture by elaborating a typology that is based on current studies and researches. The typology is employed to analyze the strategic culture of the Italian political elite in the XXI century. Using an empirical analysis of the belief systems of the Italian party and bureaucratic elites, the study determines whether the model of Italian strategic culture, which has remained dominant since WWII, persisted during the post-Cold War period and the extent to which the current leadership has an image of international politics and strategic preferences consistent with this model.
"Politics does not Stop at the ‘Nucler Edge’. Neoclassical Realism and the Making of China’s Military Doctrine”
Paolo Rosa and Paolo Foradori have a new paper published entitled "Politics does not Stop at the ‘Nucler Edge’. Neoclassical Realism and the Making of China’s Military Doctrine” in the journal Italian Political Science Review. The article aims to explain the impact of domestic politics on China’s nuclear doctrine.
The article tries to explain why China, after having launched a crash programme in the mid-1950s to develop a nuclear deterrent, did not formulate a clear operational doctrine with respect to the targeting and employment of atomic weapons until the mid-1980s. Propositions derived from neoclassical realism are used to shed some light on this puzzling aspect of China’s nuclear doctrine. The general hypothesis of the study is that, international predicaments notwithstanding, China’s domestic politics prevented the possibility of articulating a clear and detailed nuclear doctrine during the period following the first nuclear test, when such a doctrine was more necessary.
"Expanding the peacekeeping agenda. The protection of cultural heritage in war-torn societies"
Paolo Foradori and Paolo Rosa have a new paper entitled "Expanding the peacekeeping agenda. The protection of cultural heritage in war-torn societies" published in the journal Global Change, Peace & Security. The paper deals with ‘cultural peacekeeping’ as a fundemental component of nowadays international operations supporting Peace.
This article aims to explain the emergence and assess the politico- military significance of ‘cultural peacekeeping’ (CPK) as a new task for international peace operations. The aim is to provide a conceptual appraisal of CPK and an initial insight into its objectives, opportunities and challenges. The analysis supports the inclusion of a cultural component in the mandates of peacekeeping interventions, even if we must be wary of the inherent difficulties and risk of unintended consequences. These are not to be underestimated, at the risk not only of failing to achieve the mission’s objectives but also of further deteriorating security on the ground and beyond. It follows that CPK should not be mistaken, nor presented to the public, as a minor, light, and inexpensive operation. Quite to the contrary, it is an extremely complex and politically very sensitive politico-military major exercise that needs careful planning and adequate capabilities. Misunderstanding or mismanaging CPK can severely backfire. It is a ‘double-edged weapon’ that must be handled cautiously to avoid the risk of the enemy manipulating it to its own advantage.
"Protecting cultural heritage during armed conflict: the Italian contribution to cultural peacekeeping’'
Paolo Foradori has a new paper entitled "Protecting cultural heritage during armed conflict: the Italian contribution to cultural peacekeeping’' published in the journal Modern Italy .
The paper deals with Italy's contribution to “cultural peacekeeping”, the protection of cultural heritage in conflict-affected zones.
World cultural heritage is under systemic attack on several crisis fronts, most notably in Mesopotamia, where ISIS is practising a deliberate and highly sophisticated strategy of ‘cultural cleansing’. Through its newly established Task Force, Italy is leading the international community’s efforts to strengthen the protection regime by including a cultural component in the mandates of peacekeeping interventions. The Italian contribution distinguishes itself, thanks to its capacities and capabilities, in fulfilling the military, police and cultural tasks of ‘cultural peacekeeping’ and in meeting the needs of the international intervention in the crucial entry and exit phases. Moreover, Italy’s commitment to protecting cultural heritage fits perfectly with the distinctive features of Italy’s international identity and role while at the same time serving the country’s national interests by increasing its standing and visibility in world affairs.